Medical expulsive therapy with selective a-blockers is recommended for distal ureteric stones between 5 and 10 mm as the initial modality. The quality of evidence for this recommendation is low.
Bosniak classification of renal cysts. The original Bosniak classification was proposed in 1986. It has been subsequently modified to be better subcategorised for more accuracy to differentiate between benign and malignant disease.
Shock wave lithotripsy is the only completely non-invasive treatment for renal stone disease. Proper patient selection and treatment with low intensity and frequency can improve efficacy and reduce complications.
Treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. There are now significant advances in the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Novel approaches involving tyrosine kinase inhibitor and checkpoint inhibitors provide survival benefits.