Chapter 81: Urinary Symptoms and Investigations

Journal articles

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejm199104253241702/ (free)

This is one of the first publications on the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for screening for prostate cancer and is a landmark study as it helped establish population screening with PSA.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S009042959600091X?via%3Dihub/ (paid)

This study helped analyse differences in prostate-specific antigen at different ages and thus suggested that there may not be one fixed value for each age.

https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa1606220?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%20%200www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ (free)

Also known as the ProtecT study, this paper reports that prostate cancer-specific mortality was low after 10 years of observation, surgery or radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer but both active interventions were associated with a lower incidence of disease progression and metastases.



This guideline from the American Urological Association defines the recommended work-up of patients with microscopic haematuria and is an important resource for the evaluation of such patients.


https://www.prostatecancer-riskcalculator.com/seven-prostate-cancer-risk-calculators/ (free)

This risk calculator from the Prostate Cancer Research Foundation provides multiple tools for assessing general health, prostate-specific antigen-based risk of prostate cancer and cancer risk based on other parameters.

https://riskcalc.org/PCPTRC/ (free)

This prostate cancer risk calculator is based on the information from the PCPT trial.

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