Chapter 58: The Breast

We have tried to provide the best description of the anatomy of the breast as well as benign and malignant diseases of the breast, supported by images, illustrations, tables and videos in this chapter. Below are some additional weblinks to further support your understanding in this area.

Journal articles

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960977607000707/ (paid)

The commonest benign breast disease is mastalgia, the treatment of which is challenging. This meta-analysis of various trials of mastalgia will help you to understand it further.

https://www.thebreastonline.com/article/S0960-9776(10)00046-9/pdf/ (free)

Triple assessment is essential for breast examination and the recording of results. Breast changes in the form of nodularity have been discussed in this chapter. To find out more about this nodularity and the scores for recording, refer to this link.

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc/article/PIIS1470-2045(17)30777-5/fulltext (paid)

Breast surgery has evolved from radical surgery to more focused and individualised care. This article provides more understanding on this subject.

https://academic.oup.com/jnci/article/98/9/599/2522073/ (free)

The management of the axilla forms an important part of breast cancer surgery. This article reports on the landmark ALMANAC trial regarding sentinel lymph node versus complete axillary lymph node treatment in operable breast cancer.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1879850016301849?via%3Dihub/ (paid)

After surgery, further management with adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment is essential.

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa020989/ (free)

Is there a need to remove the whole breast or not? This randomised study will help further understanding of this concept.



Benign breast disease itself is an extensive topic, we therefore recommend this publication.



The details of breast cancer are summarised well in the chapter, but these guidelines provide more detail.

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