Chapter 35: History taking and Clinical Examination in Musculoskeletal Disease

Journal articles

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3658379/ (free)

This article provides a detailed overview of the anatomy, aetiology and pathophysiology of tendon injury coupled with comprehensive evaluation and treatment information that clinicians require to optimally design treatment programmes for rehabilitation and prevention.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00590-017-1979-8 (paid)

This article provides a detailed description of tests for diagnosing shoulder impingement.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4094013/ (free)

This review provides the reader with a detailed overview of hip examination. It contains 21 steps, which compares well with the shoulder 20-step examination and the knee 33-step examination. Consideration should be given to the four layers that constitute the hip: the osseous, capsulolabral, musculotendinous and neurovascular.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3213012/ (free)

This review analyses the most commonly used tests and signs for knee examination, outlining the correct way to perform the test, the correct interpretation of a positive test and the best management for evaluating an injured knee in both the acute and delayed setting.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35476673/ (paid)

This review provides a detailed assessment and differential diagnosis of a stiff flat foot with particular reference to the adolescent age group.


https://stanfordmedicine25.stanford.edu/the25/Ankleandfootexam.html (free)

This online resource provides a detailed overview of different aspects of the physical examination of painful conditions of the foot and ankle.

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