This paper details the three-column classification of spinal trauma. First described by Denis for thoracolumbar fractures, it is still commonly used in surgical practice to predict if a spinal fracture is stable or unstable. The classification is applicable for spinal fractures from C3 to L5 (not just thoracolumbar fractures).
This is a systematic review investigating the benefits of early versus late fixation in patients with unstable fractures and normal neurology. The review indicates that early fixation is beneficial, leading to shorter hospital and intensive care unit stay and a reduction in complications. The advantage was greatest in patients with high injury severity scores (polytrauma).
This document details the initial management of a patient with an acute spinal cord injury. It presents algorithms as guidelines for the early management and recognition of possible complications.